Wayland web designers
Hello and welcome to this web designers Web Designer Wayland video tutorial.
I’m Owen Corso from Google.
And today, we’re going to build a rich media expandable creative with video.
Let’s start by selecting file, New File.
This opens a dialog box where we will set up our ad.
First, let’s make out high of project.
We have four options– The default is Display & Video 360so we will leave that as is.
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I’m no color expert. Far from, actually. Throughout my career, I’ve depended on visual designers better than myself to produce an engaging palette and apply it harmoniously across a UI.
Yet, as a systems designer, I’m often in the position to provoke and validate color decisions as a system takes shape. Here’s a 16 lessons I’ve learned while stabilizing a primary palette, tint and shade choices, secondary palettes, and solving for accessible contrast.
By primary, we’re talking colors used everywhere including your brand colors, neutrals, and a typically interactive digital blue.
#1. Stabilize Brand Colors Quickly
︎Every organization has one, two, or no more than a few core brand colors. THE red. THE blue. THE orange. Settle on them. Even if reasonably set up with a color variable or two, nothing signals a design system team that can’t get their act together than constantly changing primary colors.
Takeaway: Decide your essential brand colors early, because they spread widely, quickly.
#2. Involve Brand (If You Alter a Brand Color)
Is brand blue a bit dull? Can’t resist the urge to liven it up? Nothing poisons early collaboration more than a casual “We saturated the brand orange for web” followed by brand reacting with “You did what?” Oh the sacrilege!
Takeaway: Brand colors are the brand team’s territory. So discuss adjustments with them and defer to their judgment as needed.
#3. Drop the Neutral Neutrals
From dark-as-night charcoal to fluffy light gray, neutrals provide essential UI scaffolding. Loading a system with neutrals, even a few, risks giving teams access to muddy colors. They can also lead to “wireframey” designs. And, neither dark nor light type has sufficiently accessible contrast on a medium gray background.
Takeaway: Provide a few light grays and a few dark grays to achieve useful contrast, but don’t get wishy washy wireframey. Consider avoiding medium grays in between.
#4. Go “Digital Blue.” Everybody Else Does.
My past five design systems settled on a saturated blue as a default button and link color. Links have always been blue, perhaps since the dawn of the first browser. This “Digital” blue, a utility color for links and clickable items, is essential in any core palette.
Takeaway: When (not if 😉 ) you go with your “Digital Blue,” choose an accessible one and make sure it doesn’t clash with the brand’s own blue, or red, orange, purple, or green.
Tints & Shades Per Color
You can’t have just a few colors and call it a day, right? System users often need to tune a color choice across a range, reuse with ease, and know their boundaries.
#5. Stack the Tint & Shade Range, Per Color
Color palette display patterns long predate the web. Yet I still love me a compactly arranged tint stack. They can be just…gorgeous. The best stacks visualize more than just a color, combining its name with HEX codes, code variables, and other indicators (such as prohibiting overlaid type). A quick scan is all you need.
Takeaway: Stack available colors in each hue, and treat the stack as a visualization to include important details compactly.Material Design’s Indigo and Deep Orange
#6. Name Tints & Shades by Brightness
We’ve all been there. A month into the system, the neutrals $color-gray-1, $color-gray-2, … , $color-gray-7 — are stable. And then, in a stroke, you’ve got another tint to add stuck between -1 and -2. That numbering system stinks.
Takeaway: Scale color names between 0 and 100 based on brightness, such as $color-gray-05 and $color-gray-92. The scale reflects a familiar range from dark to light, allows for injecting new options between, and heck if I won’t remember $color-gray- 93 until we retire it later.
#7. Limit Tint & Shade Quantity
At the core of a good system is choice without endless options, a stable aesthetic to serve as a starting point. Odds are, you aren’t Material Design, intended to serve countless products. In most cases, a design system need not offer boundless choices. The more choices you provide, the tougher it’ll be to control harmonic combinations and a consistent feel across applications.
Takeaway: Offer a handful of options and avoid tedious variety. Empower system users with just enough choice: more than a single option, but only up to a few intentional choices.
#8. Tell Me How To Transform: Hand-Pick or Functionally
Modern tools like SASS and Stylus offer transformation functions like darken and lighten to shift a color by a brightness percentage. These handy tools enable a you to alter a color for subtle contrasts like a hovered button or tiered navigation.
But transforms can be troublesome: carefully crafted base colors can become inaccessible alternatives (see below), a page’s overall palette can muddy, or a “5% system” that works on moderately bright colors yields insufficient contrast for a very light or dark case.
Takeaway: Deliberately allow — or avoid — color transformations in your system. If you endorse the practice, then offer examples of when and how to do it effectively in your system, such as 5–10% for moderately bright cases and 10–20% in more extreme cases. If transformations should be avoided , document that succinctly.
Beyond the brand colors and their variants, well-considered color systems array the broader variety of colors reserved for varied purposes.
#9. Define Meaningful Sets Like Feedback Colors
Most systems reserve a certain red for errors, green for success, yellow for warning, and (possibly a lighter sky) blue for informational messages. Feedback color is critical, because it’s positioned at the top of the page interacting with other key components and/or encountered as a result of an unwelcome circumstance. Without system guidance, such messages become embedded in product code, the result of product teams solving a challenge quickly and moving on.
Takeaway: Explore and define the standard feedback colors and other relevant sets to ensure that colors fit harmoniously rather wedging them in later or having teammates recall “I just grabbed it from Google.”Typical feedback colors: success, warning, error and informational
#10. Illustrate Theme Variety
In some systems, color use is customized per product, section, or brand. Often, this may be a result of relating a master brand (think, Marriott International) to its sub-brands (think Courtyard Hotels, Ritz Carlton, and Moxy Hotels). Or it’s a prefab themes like Ambient Warmth and Frozen Blue. Maybe the user is complete control, and you need to illustrate the breadth of (all the havoc of) what they can do.
Takeaway: Reveal the range of themes available compactly, and set boundaries around allowable theme colors in certain contexts.Theme colors for multiple Marriott.com hotels, derived from product pages
#11. Define How Theming Works
It’s not enough to simply say “Go ahead and theme it!” A theme color may apply to predictable accents throughout a UI such as button background-color, active tab background-color, or a primary navigation’s thick border-top. Just as important, theme colors may be forbidden from altering other bits, such as long form type or — yikes! — a link color that ends up invisible.
Takeaway: Identify how theming works, particularly via reference to specific UI element properties in play. Just as important, articulate which — if not most — elements are off limits.
#12. Avoid Guiding on Color-Mixing Until (At Least) Dust Settles
One of my favorite all time design system tools is Google’s MDL Color Customizer, which enables users to combine primary and secondary UI colors effectively. It’s so easy, and the outcome so helpful. Yet, the system teams I work with either don’t want to provide this kind of flexibility or lack the time and care necessary to solve such a combinatoric challenge.
Takeaway: Avoid the rabbit hole of solving for a vast array of color combinations unless it’s a core system value. In most cases, system users will pair up their own combinations or benefit from a tool more dedicated to doing just that. Help them propagate their choice rather than solving for every combination they may consider. That experimentation is their job.Serve users of your system by making it efficient to propagate their choice through a product, rather than making the choice for them.
Contrast & Accessibility
Solving for accessible color contrast should a core practice of setting up any digital color system from the get go. However, design can be tumultuous place, and teams can lose sometimes. Or some members don’t know about accessibility. Or they simply don’t prioritize it.
A systems team can engrain accessible practices into a workflow to provoke and spread values in accessibility broadly across an enterprise.
#13. Check Contrast Early & Ritually
It happens often: a few weeks or days before a product — or design system — launch, finally somebody notices. The design team hasn’t taken necessary care to ensure the primary and secondary color palette is being applied in a way to meet WCAG 2.0 color contrast of 3.0 (for large, heavier type) or 4.5 (for standard type). So designers — and then, their developers — scramble to determine fixes and inject it into the code.
Takeaway: Any system designer responsible for color must be familiar with WCAG 2.0 rules, have a tool (like Tanaguru) to test color pairs, and incorporate the practice into color selection.Tanaguru, one of many accessibility calculators online
#14. Explore Accessible Color Choices Across Ranges
A drawback of WCAG guidelines is its stark threshold: a color pair passes or fails. This leaves designers yearning for more, but worse leaves stakeholders flummoxed at how bad the color pair fails and how much it needs to change.
Conversation quickens when we reveal a spectrum of choices, with the pass/fail line fairly evident. This transforms the process from trial and error to tuning a dial. Before, it was “That pair failed. Let’s try again.” Now, it’s an enlightening “Oh, so that’s how dark the blue needs to be” followed by a rational discussion to balance visual tone, brand identity, and accessibility sensitivities.
Takeaway: When exploring accessible color contrast, show a range of choices to help a team select a color that passes the test.Exploring neutral and interactive colors by showing multiple choices across a range
#15. Solve the Reverse Light on Dark and Dark on Light
When creating a system, it’s up to the systems designer to be mindful of and solve for the entire range of choices on offer. It’s not enough to just test for accessibility problems as they arise. Instead, a color palette should be thoroughly reviewed prior to publishing a system for reuse.
This is especially true for reverse color treatments. It’s very common for a system to default to dark text on a light background. However, most find themselves reversing color treatments, whether a black and white on light and dark neutrals or tints of another primary or secondary color.
Takeaway:Solve for and recommend reversed pairings to adopt or avoid.A table of calculated contrast (using a SASS function) between neutral backgrounds and interactive blue alternatives
#16. Use Color to Provoke Broader Accessibility Awareness
Color is fundamental to a system, and accessible color contrast is fundamental to color. This injects accessibility smack dab into the middle of a system’s formation. People that matter are paying attention: brand managers, design leads, developers, and execs. What a wonderful opportunity to use color to open a door to the broader array of accessibility considerations.
Takeaway: Seize the opportunity to advocate for accessibility. Always be probing a collaborator’s knowledge of accessibility (or lack thereof) and educate and advocate all you can.
Wayland web designers
Next, we can select the type of ad.
We want to make an expandable, so we select Expandable on the left.
Next, we can set again ad’s dimensions.
We are building a 320 by 50that expands to 480 by 250.
So I will make those changes.
We then assign the Wayland creative a name.
I will leave my Save ToLocation as the default, and leave the talk about set to Quick.
Once I’m happy with my settings, I click OK.
Google Web Designer creates the initial pages of the ad for me with the dimensions I defined.
The collapsed page already contains a Tap Area event to expand the ad and an expanded pageWayland with a close tap area to collapse back down.
7 future web design trends
WEB DESIGN IS BROKEN.
It's just crumbled tosand in your hands and it's just disappointing.
Today we are going to talkabout budget that the big one: budget budget BUDGET! It is such a huge topicbut I'm finally gonna lay down the final word on budget, specifically how much youshould spend when you're buying a website.
I've got the answer for you.
Youready you ready for it? 500,000 pounds a week! There we go! Did it!(that was easy) I'm out.
See you later.
(web design isfixed) No.
If you do have five hundred thousand a week to spend on a websiteyou should get in touch with me.
I think we could work with that.
Budget it's sucha huge topic no one's really kind of tackling the answers of a few there's afew articles on the internet that are like "well if you want this type ofwebsite you should spend around this much and if you want that type ofwebsite you should spend around that" Much it really comes down to a fewfactors namely your attitude towards risk, whether you're whether you'recoming from a gain or a pain perspective and how much you actually stand to makeout of it.
What you're really doing is investing in a website: you're lookingfor it to create a return you want it to be putting money back into your pocket.
If you don't want it to do that then it's only gonna be acting detrimental,it's only gonna be taking money or reputation or whatever out of yourpocket and you really need to rethink the reasons why you're doing this in thefirst place.
Go back to one of my previous videos wherewhat where I ask you the question why are you doing this in the first place.
Sothe first thing that we've got to understand when we're asking thequestion how much does a website cost, how much do I spend on a website, we'vereally got to appreciate that all you're doing is you'retrying to give yourself what they call an 'anchor' This is literally just apsychological stake in the ground so that your brain can go "okay well I'vegot a point to start from" It really doesn't matter what that number is butit becomes your anchor: the first price you hear becomes your anchor and aroundthat point you will base all value judgments.
So be careful when you'reasking this question because you might end up with another massivelyoverinflated number that completely puts you off of even going down that routewhen actually you could have got something that worked for you at areasonable price, and if you get a number that's too lowyou're gonna look around and think "hey well this is all way too expensive" andnot actually start engaging in the conversations to help you understand thevalue that it could bring there is.
Another thing that you need to be reallyaware of when you're trying to create a budget for our website and that is thatyou like me like everyone else on the planetwe are naturally risk-averse: yeah we have loss aversion.
Most people agree withthe statement that "it is better to not lose five pounds than it is to find fivepounds" It's the same five pounds! It's weirdwe're hardwired to avoid losses.
We try and keep what we have and thereforewe're less likely to risk that in search of future gains so this means thatyou're naturally going to be skeptical about the gains that you can create witha website you're naturally gonna want to spend as little as possible andthat means that you're at a risk of actually under investing when you'rebuying a website Yourisk of under-investing because you're averse to loss.
I'm exactly the same: theamount of times that I've bought things that I need on say Amazon and gone forthe cheapest possible one because I wasn't entirely sure if, you know, if itwould bring me the thing that I was looking for - the reality is that I endup spending double because, you know, buy cheap buy twice.
But you can actuallyunder invest and if you do especially in something like a website it's like underinvesting in in your team member: if you if you hire a new salesman andyou under invest in him well then he's not gonna do as good a job as hepossibly could do if you're picking if you're picking your teammembers based on the salary that they're willing to accept then you're probablyunder investing and you're not actually realizing that if you spend a little bitmore you can get like disproportionately larger returns.
The third thing that youreally need to be aware of but before you start thinking about your budget iswhether you're coming from a pain perspective or a gain perspective.
Areyou looking to this website to help you reach new markets to help you, I don'tknow, dominate the competition; to help you boost sales/Is it a gain thing? Are you launching a new business a new product? Or are youlooking at it from a pain perspective? Are you looking at it and thinking wellhow can I use this website to help me automate things, cut costs, reduceoverhead - things like that.
Maybe you've got a whole bunch of bad reviews on yourexisting website and so you're almost being forced by your customers forced byyour marketplace to up your game what you're really trying to do there ismanage losses.
You approach these.
you can buy the same thing in two different waysand your experience and therefore what you're willing to spend completelychanges depending on whether you're coming from a pain or a gain perspective.
The final line on it is using an analogy that we use sometimesit's based around cars basically.
Are you are you just trying toget to and from work or are you trying to win Formula One the Formula One GrandPrix you need very different types of cars to be able to do each of thosethings.
There's no point in buying a Formula One car because when you pull upin the Sainsbury's car park you're gonna have nowhere to put your shopping.
Likewise there's no point in buying a Fiat Panda and taking it to the track.
Sothe better you can understand what type of race is that your business is tryingto win, or what type of things your business are trying to do with a websiteand what that's worth to you is the better you're gonna be able to startcreating a realistic budget and get a return that's more in line with yourexpectations.
My name is Aaron Taylor I'm helping youto make better decisions and have better conversations when you're buying awebsite.
till next time.
[singing] I fixed webdesign, said I fixed web design.
The Only UX Reading List Ever
ADRIENNE PORTERFELT: You've probably tried to buy somethingonline or had to fill out some formfor your kid's school, and it's reallyhard on your phone.
It's really hard.
MUSTAFA: There seemsto be a dark art when it comes to nativeapplications, and they're such small details thatyou're actually working on.
[MUSIC PLAYING] Quite often, developers willjust throw on input fields onto a page and not reallythink about the UX that's attributed to that.
So they'll think ofa flow of a form, but they won't necessarilyfeel that individual input, so how a user struggles.
And we know thatautocomplete really helps speed up theuser experience and makes fillingforms quite nice.
What are your feelingsand experiences on autocomplete andAutofill as a thing? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT:From the user experience, you've probably triedto buy something online or had to fill out someform for your kid's school.
And it's reallyhard on your phone.
It's really hard.
It's even hard on desktop.
You don't want to get upand get your credit card out of your purse,which is downstairs.
And these browserfeatures just really improve the userexperience of using a form.
In fact, we find that peoplefill out or submit the form 30% faster if the formworks with Autofill.
So we very much suggest thatweb developers think about this.
You want people to besubmitting your forms.
Right? So if you really want yourforms to be submitted quickly, easily, work with Autofill.
MUSTAFA: And why do you thinkdevelopers don't do that? Is it very difficult to do? I'm assuming it's just a fewattributes you add to inputs.
Right? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Yeah.
It's actually not that hard.
So you basically need to setup autocomplete attributes, and you need to makesure that you're not doing any fancy things thatreplace the normal select and input elements withother types of elements.
I think most of these developersjust don't think about it, don't realize,that you just need to put a littlebit of extra effort in to make sure that yourform works well with Autofill and to test it out.
MUSTAFA: Is that oneof the challenges, I suppose, like people makingthese custom UI things, which are not native but justlike divs or whatever and replacing that? Is that where thingsfall down with Autofill? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT:Honestly, there's a few things that can go wrong,but that's one of the big ones.
Yeah, so someone wants thisreally beautiful custom form where the dropdown isall fancy and custom.
And as a result of that,they're using all divs.
And the browser can'tfigure out, oh, this is supposed to be a form.
And then in that case,Autofill isn't going to work.
MUSTAFA: And Isuppose there's a lot of accessibilityissues connected to that as well, it looks like.
But from your pointof view, you've got designers anddevelopers, they want to do something custom,like unique experience.
But then as someone whoworks on the browser, you want to say, now letthe browser do the work.
Do you think there'sa middle point there? How can developers at leasthave a custom experience that's unique to theirproduct, but at the same time without breaking standards? Because this is one of thebiggest challenges on the web.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT:So there's a lot of things you can do tochange the look of the form on the page while stillusing the select and input elements that HTML provides.
Right? You can customizethem in many ways.
I have to admit, there is onething you can't customize, and it's the lookof the dropdown, like in a select element.
But everything else, the wayit statically looks on a page, you can customize.
And the browser will stillknow that they're fields.
What you see is thebiggest challenge then, for Autofillor implementation, from your point of view? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT:I think it's honestly that developers don't thinkabout it, that people don't think to themselves that theyreally need to be testing their forms in this way.
When you've made it yourself,you've filled it out 100 times.
You tested it yourself.
And you don't thinkabout the fact that a user is goingto be coming to it in a different state of mind.
They are tryingto fill it out as fast as they can on the phone.
So I think developersjust aren't really thinking about the factthat they need to take these extra small steps.
MUSTAFA: So in terms ofbrowser compatibility, the things you're using willbe Chrome-specific stuff? Or is that open source-- not open source, butit's cross-platform.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Yeah,that's a good question.
So specifically autocompleteattributes for Autofill, that's standardized.
All the browsers respect them.
With that being said, thereis one part, turning Autofill off-- that's the autocompleteoff attribute-- is not respected by all browsers.
But if you say,this form should be a credit card, thatwill be respected by all the major browsers.
MUSTAFA: But eachexperience, is there slight quirks per browser? Because obviously, that's goingto be a browser-specific thing.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Some are-- they have veryslightly different UIs.
For example, maybe they'llbe integrated with a keyboard widget versus a dropdown.
But I think they're prettysimilar across browsers.
MUSTAFA: You work on theactual Chrome UI itself.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Yes.
MUSTAFA: So are you actuallybuilding that design and code yourself, or are youworking with UX designers in that process? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Sowe have a design team.
And the design team helpsus figure out what those UI elements should look like.
We actually have a bigredesign coming up this year that I think is going tomake those substantially more beautiful and also help clean upthe code, which I know that it won't affect most people becauseit won't look any different.
But from our perspective-- MUSTAFA: It's much cleaner.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Man,the code's so much cleaner.
MUSTAFA: What's the actualprocess of you actually creating UI? Because for me, I do front-enddevelopment and code.
But it's like there seemsto be a dark art when it comes to native applications.
And they're such smalldetails that you're actually working on, which the user maynot notice because it works.
But if it's broken,they will see it.
What is the actualprocess that you go through with your Chromedesigners to actually making the UI or testing it? I'm asking lots ofquestions all at once.
ADRIENNE PORTERFELT: Yeah, it's OK.
So I'll talk about theprocess a little bit.
So usually at the beginning,Product, Eng, and the designer will get togetherand talk about what they hope for from the feature.
Often, the designwill then come up with some conceptualmocks of what they feel the feature could look like.
They'll get feedbackfrom Product.
They'll get feedback fromthe engineers, like can we actually build this, whatare the corner cases we need? And then we'lliteratively get closer to what we actually can ship.
So I work on across-platform team, which means that whatwe build has to ship on all of Chrome's platforms.
People think of Chromeas one platform.
But actually, it'sWindows and Mac-- which previouslyhad different UIs, but we're coming toone single standard-- Android, iOS.
And so we have to havedifferent mocks that relate to the specific platforms.
So some things may bepossible for some subset.
Anyway, the designers get allthis feedback from engineers, like, we can do thishere and not there.
And then we iterativelycome through to red lines, which isour final set of designs.
And that's what we implement.
MUSTAFA: So in termsof do the designers work with the actual W3C? Because you'redesigning something which has to beconsidered cross-platform at the same [? time.
?] So likewhen the payment request API, like I was working withsome of the team there, there seems to be thingswhere you have to really be seeing whateveryone else is doing so that the experiencethat you're creating is not so widely different.
And that can be quitechallenging for the designer and developer because youinstinctively want to make it, I don't know, "better.
" But you don't want to makeit so vastly different, because then you stick out.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: That'san interesting question.
The challenge here isthat with specs, we try not to specify whatthe UI has to look like.
We try to talk about what theuser experience should be so that we can have the appropriatecallbacks, et cetera, to build that experience.
But we don't like tostandardize the UI itself, which is a fine balance becauseyou have to have a UI in mind when you're designing the API.
But we try to make itas general as possible so that we can build differentUI experiences on top of it.
MUSTAFA: Are you workingwith the browsers as well at the sametime to do that, or is it you do things independently? Because there's the thing.
It's like if you do it[INAUDIBLE] the browsers, then you may be leddown a path that's not the best for everyone.
That it's, OK, it'slike a compromise.
But at the same time, you don'twant that complete disparity.
ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Itdepends a lot on the standard, honestly.
Some of them willbe heavily driven by Chrome or some other browser.
They really want this API.
They'll drive it, and thenget a little bit of feedback along the way fromother vendors.
Whereas others,from the beginning, there's severaldifferent browser vendors working together.
So honestly, it differsfrom standard to standard.
MUSTAFA: And we're coming to the10-year anniversary of Chrome.
What do you thinkthe future of say, Autofill, or just workingwith the other browsers? Because it seems like thingsare getting much better.
I was speaking toDarren, and it was like, the implementationof Flexbox was a nightmare becausethe standard kept changing.
But with CSS grid, it'samazing that there's so much cross-collaborationbetween the browsers, which is great for the users and thedevelopers working across this.
What do you think the futureis for Chrome as a platform and, I suppose, Autofillas well as a specific? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Sofor Autofill specifically, it's hard to saybecause I don't think the limitation there reallyis the lack of browser vendors cooperating.
I feel like actually, there'sbeen a lot of discussion, for example, aroundpayment request.
There's a lot of collaborationbetween Safari and Chrome.
I think that thereal problem we have is that Autofill dependson developer adoption.
Right? If it's hard for thebrowser to figure out what form's in thepage, we're not going to be able to Autofill it.
And so I think thething we really care about is whetherwe can get developers interested in andusing the tools that we have provided for them totry to improve the Autofill experience.
Do you ever have toremove a feature when you see there's not wide adoption? Because I can seefrom an engineer, you're working on Chrome.
You spent your heart andsoul working on this feature.
And then you know it'sgreat for user experience.
You know from theresearch that Autofill will help transactions,and it's just nicer.
But if adoption doesn'thappen, how do you [INAUDIBLE]?? It's the biggest-- ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Yeah,that's a really hard one.
I've been througha few deprecations.
They can be really challenging.
It's very hard.
So there are a few waysyou can look at it.
One is how many usersinteract with websites that are using such a feature.
And obviously, thatnumber is large, you don't want to create apain point for a lot of users.
But even if thenumber is very small, it might be that there are afew websites, a few companies, whose entire businessmodel depends on having access to this API.
And so that can make itvery difficult, where OK, even if it's thisreally a niche thing, it still can behard to deprecate.
So I think there have beenlots of ongoing discussions in general about howto make that trade-off.
Some of the onesI've been involved in relate specificallyto security and TLS, where if something is makingthe web as a whole as safe, we may have to breaksome connections in order to deprecate it.
And it can be areally painful thing when you've got old serverson the internet that aren't being upgraded.
And maybe it's only a smallpercentage of overall page loads, but it'sstill frustrating when a user is trying to getto a website and it's broken.
But ultimately, fromChrome's perspective, it's the user's experiencethat's paramount.
Right? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Yes.
MUSTAFA: And theirsafety and security.
So it's like HTTPS, you couldprobably explain it better, but there's a cutoff pointwhere if your site is not loaded on HTTPS, you're goingto get a message saying, this isn't secure.
Right? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Fora long time in Chrome, we showed HTTP as neutral, HTTPas just plain text and no TLS.
MUSTAFA: Sorry, what's TLS,just for my non-designer-- ADRIENNE PORTER FELT: Oh, TLSis the underlying protocol that makes HTTPS HTTPS.
It's why it's secure.
So there is HTTP,which doesn't have any of the end-to-endsecurity bits on it.
And HTTP websiteswere just shown as a neutral standard thing.
Right? Most websites on the web wereHTTP, but that's changed.
We went from a few yearsago, we were at 25% HTTPS.
And now, it's the opposite wherewe're at more like 75% HTTPS.
So made changes in theUI to back that up.
So now when you go to awebsite that says HTTP, it's going to also say"not secure" next to it so people reallyunderstand what that means.
MUSTAFA: That decision mustbe quite tough, though.
In some respects, you need toforce the developers to say users' security is paramount.
But at the sametime, does it feel like you're breaking the web? ADRIENNE PORTER FELT:It doesn't really feel like we'rebreaking the web.
First of all, Ithink people have seen this a long time coming.
We've been talking aboutit for a long time.
We've rolled it out in phases.
So first, we started showing"not secure" specifically for pages with passwordsand credit card form fields.
And then it was for allform fields and web pages when viewed in incognito.
And now we're rolling itout for all HTTP websites.
And as you can see, becauseHTTPS adoption has really increased, it's onlyimpacting less than a quarter of page loads at this point.
MUSTAFA: So really,we're just talking about protecting the user.
ADRIENNE PORTERFELT: Yeah, and I think users have a right to knowthat their information isn't secure when they'regoing to this website and help them make adecision about whether or not they want to keep using thatservice or go to another one.
MUSTAFA: And do youthink users are quite savvy now to see those things? Or is this part of theeducation for the user as well to say, look,there are certain things on the web which arenot secure that you have to take into consideration.
ADRIENNE PORTERFELT: I'll be honest.
We have literally billions ofactive users, so it's hard to-- MUSTAFA: Make ageneral [INAUDIBLE] ADRIENNE PORTERFELT: --say generally whether people are goingto understand it or not.
We think enoughpeople understand it that they have a reactionand that they can reach out to sites saying, hey, Ireally like this site, but I wish it were secure.
And we see people doing thatas we've been rolling out these warnings.
SPEAKER 1: The way thatcellular networks are set up is that there's alwaysthese fringe areas, and there's alwaysthese breakdowns.
And higher latencyis always there.
Concluding with this series of tutorials, we will see now How To Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube.
The main purpose of the series, is that you learn in a much more effective way how to solve the Rubik's cubes.
We have seen that the resolution of the Junior Cube it's a subset of the steps for the resolution of Standard Cube.
We will see now that in the case of 4x4 Rubik's Cube (and bigger cubes), the method of resolution of the Standard Cube is the base of resolution of more complex cubes.
A way to solve more complex Rubik's Cubes is accomplished through using what is commonly called the 3x3x3 reduction method.
In this method it is necessary that you know how to solve the Standard Cube. If you need to learn how to solve the Standard Cube, please read 'How To Solve A 3x3x3 Rubiks Cube'.
For simplicity this tutorial is divided in four pages, in this first page terms are defined and the method is described.
Table Of Contents• How to solve a 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube • Pieces and Faces • Aditional Faces • Turn Of An Internal Face • Description Of The Algorithm • Step 1, Solving The Centres • Step 2, Pairing up the Edges • Step 3, Finishing the Cube • The Color Scheme • Swapping Two Opposite Centres • Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube • Step 1, Solving The Centres • I] First White Row • II] First Yellow Centre • III] Finishing the White Centre • IV] Concluding The Centres • Step 2, Pairing up the Edges • Pairing, Case A • Pairing, Case B • Step 3, Finishing the Cube • Last Layer Edges Parity Error • Incomplete Line • Incomplete Cross • Top Layer Edges Parity Error • Opposite Dedges • Adjacent Dedges • Top Layer Corners Parity Error • Corners In Line • Corners In Diagonal
How To Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube
In order to understand How To Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube, you need to be familiar with the notation. If you don't know it, please read 'How to solve a Rubiks Cube' before continuing.
For the purposes of the following tutorial, a series of colors will be chosen for the faces, you can choose others.
Pieces and Faces
- Corner ..- a physical corner piece. A corner piece has three sides. There are eight corners.
- Edge .....- a physical edge piece. An edge piece has two sides. There are twenty four edges.
- Centre ...- a physical centre piece. A centre piece has one side. There are twenty four centres.
- Face .....- a side of the cube. There are six external faces and six internal faces.
A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube has internal faces, they are named with a lowercase letter.
- Internal Upper Face - u
- Internal Down Face - d
- Internal Left Face - l
- Internal Right Face - r
- Internal Front Face - f
- Internal Back Face - b
Turn Of An Internal Face
In a 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube, the internal faces can turn.
To facilitate the turn (and the notation) of an internal face, this is rotated together with the outer face.
See the difference in the following examples of a clockwise turn of the External and the Internal Upper Face (also note the double arrow, which denotes to turn two faces).
How To Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube - Description Of The Algorithm
The algorithm is divided in three steps.
Step 1, Solving The Centres
The first step in the solution is to solve the 4 Centre Pieces on each face of the cube.
Step 2, Pairing up the Edges
The next step is to Pair up the 24 Edges into 12 distinct Double Edge Pairs (Dedges)
Step 3, Finishing the Cube
When you have solved the Centres and Paired up the Edges, you should see your 4x4x4 Rubik Cube like a 3x3x3 Rubik Cube.
You can finish off the cube in the same way as a 3x3x3.
The Color Scheme
The 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube is an even cube and has no fixed Centre pieces to refer to.
There is no quick way to determine which color goes where in relation to the others. It is helpful to have a color scheme memorised:
Standard Color Scheme
- Yellow opposite White
- Blue opposite Green
- Red opposite Orange
If your cube is scrambled (or it doesn't have the standard color scheme), there is an easy way to determine the scheme.
Simply solve the corners of your 4x4x4 (assuming that you can solve the Corners of a 3x3x3).
Once you've figured out your colour scheme, memorize it or write it down.
Swapping Two Opposite Centres
At some point in your 4x4x4 Rubik Cube solving it is possible that you make a mistake with your Centres, such as transposing two Opposite Centres.
There is an easy way to fix it.
How To Solve A 4x4x4 Rubiks Cube - Algorithm
Now that you understood the method, it is time to put in practice.
Begin with the first step: Solving The Centres.Make money writing about your passions. Join HubPages ________________________________________________________________ Acknowledgement : Table Of Contents by Darkside ________________________________________________________________